Arab Dagestanis - direct descendants of the Prophet Muhammad
By Hajimurad Radjabov : Assalam | Makhachkala | 2011
Beloved Prophet (PBUH) is the best among people. Islamic history researchers and researchers of Prophet’s genealogy (PBUH) are unanimous that Prophet Muhammad’s family (PBUH) has its roots in the family of Prophet Ismail (PBUH), who is the son of Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH). Hereby is Muhammad (PBUH) an adherent of Ibrahim’s religion (PBUH), a descendant of Ismail (PBUH), an Arab from pure and noble tribe of Quraysh, Hashimite clan.
Here are father’s side ancestors of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH): his father Abdallah, then Abd al-Muttalib, Hashim, Abd ul-Manaf, Qusay, Kilab, Murrat, Qaab, Luay, Halib, Fihr, Malik, Nazar, Kinana, Huzayma, Mudriqa, Ilyas, Muzar, Nizar, Muad, Adnan.
His mother Amina was Wahb’s daughter. Wahb is Abdu l-Manaf’s son, who is Zuhrat’s son, who is a son of Kilab. Both Prophet’s (PBUH) mother’s and father’s families go back to Kilab.
Our Prophet (PBUH) had seven children. Among them there were four daughters and three sons: Qasim, Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Fatima, Umm Kulthum, Abdullah and Ibrahim.
Fatima was the only one to live after the Prophet (PBUH) died. Fatima was born in Mecca, by the Almighty’s decision she married Companion Ali, who was Muhammad’s (PBUH) cousin. She had six children: Hasan, Husayn, Muhsin, Umm Kulthum, Zaynab, Ruqayyah. The Prophet (PBUH) loved Fatima very much. She will be senior to other women in Heaven. Her elder sons Hasan and Husayn are the only ones who left descendants that still live midst us. Among them there are great imams, awliya, Tariqa shaykhs and other kinds of outstanding people.
Allah’s beloved One (PBUH) left this world about 1400 years ago. But there are some people left with Prophet’s blood on their side. These are his descendants that belong to his noble tribe. Many of them are quite famous. They live in different countries. There are also some of them in Russia, for example, in Daghestan.
We had a conversation about Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) descendants with a historian, the Head of History Department at Islamic University of Dagestan Muradula Dadayev.
- How did Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) descendants move to current Dagestani land and what was their fortune?
- Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), whose appearance on Earth was the salvation for the mankind, said on the Farewell pilgrimage: ‘O Men! Listen well to my words carefully! And retell them to the ones who are not here, for I do not know whether I shall meet you again on such an occasion in the future.’ Obeying these words of the Prophet (PBUH) his companions worked hard to inform everyone of the Almighty’s religion. They travelled to the different parts of the world to make da’wah (Islamic call). Thus they came to Daghestan. There were some people from Quraysh tribe and some from Banu Hashims, i.e. descendants of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
In the time of Abbasids a famous shaykh Abu Muslim came to Daghestan. Two more shaykhs from Hamza tribe and three more shaykhs from Abbas tribe who were blood brothers of Prophet’s father (PBUH) followed Abu Muslim. Shaykh Abu Muslim settled down in Dagestan and was busy with da’wah. He lived about 24 years in Khunzah, the capital of Avaristan, and spread Islam. He built mosques and Islamic schools. When Islam asserted itself and people wanted to live according to the Creator’s religion, Abu Muslim following Islamic traditions of governing chose five shaykhs and made them rule over five regions: Kazikumukh, Kaytag etc. These governors and their descendants are sayyids, which means that they belong to the Prophet’s family (PBUH).
And there is a third branch in Dagestan that comes from Prophet’s daughter (PBUH) Fatima and her sons Hasan and Husayn. It is known that Djamaludin Kazikumukh, who is a shaykh of Naqshbandi tariqa, is a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) by his daughter Fatima’s side.
And it is also known that great Daghestani shaykhs are direct descendants of Allah’s Messenger (PBUH). It is notable that the head of Dagestani Muslims, mufti Ahmad-hajji Abdulayev, is a grandchild of Tariqa shaykh Abdulhamid-afandi from Inkho, whose genealogy goes back to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Thus Ahmad-hajji is a descendant of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in different meanings, because he continues spreading Allah’s religion.
- What historical documents mention sayyids?
- According to Shariah norms people from Banu Hashim and Banu Abd al-Mutalib clan used to get stipend (khumus) from booty. At the times of imam Shamil’s Imamat Prophet’s descendants also used to get this stipend. Reliable sources say there were more than 70 sayyid families in Dagestan and they received khumus. Shaykh imam Shamil gave these families a special document that stated these people truly were sayyids, the descendants of the Prophet’s noble clan (PBUH), so that not anyone could claim khums. One of these documents given by imam Shamil to two brothers Muhammad and Ahmad, who lived in the village of Kudali of Gunib region, has preserved until nowadays.
And there are some other documents that tell us about Prophet’s descendants (PBUH) in Daghestan. There is this certified document that tells about a ruler of Kazikumukh Muhammadkhan from the clan of Abbas, Prophet’s uncle (PBUH). After his death three of his sons Gunash, Alikhan and Alibeg had an argument concerning governing rights. They were given lands in Hid and Andalal vilayats. The society of Hid (today is a part of Shamilsky district of Republic of Dagestan (RD)) gave them the lands in the village of Gogotl and descendants of the Prophet (PBUH) stayed there for a while. But the climate did not match them and they left. The elder son Gunash moved to Gonoda (a part of Gunibsky district of RD), Alibeg moved to Teletl (Shamilsky district of RD) and Alikhan moved to the village of Gotsal (Khunzah region of RD).
What happened to Alikhan after he moved to Gotsatl is of a great interest. His son Aliskandi was famous for his wisdom and was a vizier of Khunzah khans. Aliskandi’s son Gamzat-beg was Dagestan second imam. His destiny was similar to Hamza’s, who was the Prophet’s uncle (PBUH), and he died as a shahid on a mosque threshold.
- Where do Prophet’s descendants (PBUH) live nowadays and what do you think is the number of sayyids today?
- No one can tell the exact number today. There are quite a few historical facts, that say there were Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) descendants in Dagestan. There is a letter written by a head of the village of Tsoloda to Khunzah khan Umakhan. It says some descendants of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) live in Tsoloda, and the head of the village asks khan not to take taxes from them.
At the times of imam Shamil there were more than 70 families that truly were sayyids. Daghestani families had many children those days, so we may consider that there are a lot of Prophet’s (PBUH) offsprings in Daghestan nowadays.
We also must mention the fact that people having secret knowledge (shaykhs that are aqtabs, people who have high ranks) are descendants of Hasan, grandchild of the Allah’s Messenger (PBUH). This can be proved by the fact that we have true Tariqa shaykhs in Dagestan and they are the offspring of the best among people – Muhammad (PBUH).
It is great to have so many people coming from the noble family on such a small land like Daghestan. Thanks to their grace and wisdom Daghestan is calm and peaceful, though there are always some attempts to destabilize the situation.
If we take into consideration that there are many marriages between different Daghestani tukhums, it is possible to call them all Arabs, because thousands of families moved here from Sham (Syria, Jordan, Palestine and Lebanon), Mecca and Medina in the past. Hisham ibn Abd ul-Malik, who is a cousin of the well-known ruler Umar ibn Abd ul-Aziz, at the times of his reign (105-125 Hijri of 724-745 CE) came to Daghestan and brought 24,000 soldier families with him. They moved and settled down here. Ibn Kathir wrote in his book Bidayatu wa Nihayat, that well-known Abbasid caliph Harun ar-Rashid visited Daghestan with his wife and two children. And he also brought 7,000 soldier families with him. These soldiers moved to Derbent and its region. The village of Kurush in Southern Daghestan was called Kurushiyu before, because Arab people from Quraysh tribe lived there. Obviously, Arabs assimilated with Daghestani peoples.
- What do you do in order to get to know more about Dagestani history, especially concerning the period of Islamisation and Arab arrival? How do you look for Prophet Muhammad’s descendants (PBUH) and the people who come from his noble tribe?
- This task is very laborious and interesting at the same time. We analyze old books and look for information about old times; we visit different villages and meet local historians and elder people etc. There are people who know something about their ancestors and have documents concerning them and come to us. This kind of help is very important to us.
Hereby I want to ask everybody who has historical documents or any information on this topic, anyone who can help to find historical bonds with Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) tribe to contact us through our site on the Internet.